Review of the Circored process -Has the time finally come?

Not scheduled
Oral Presentation New technologies under research and development with a promise to change the future (H2 based, in-bath technologies etc.)


Mr Tobias Stefan (Outotec GmbH & Co KG)


30 years ago, Outotec and its predecessor Lurgi started the development work on reduction of iron ore fines in a fluidized bed with a gaseous reductant. This work culminated 10 years later in the commissioning of the Circored plant in Trinidad as the first industrial operation of direct fine iron ore reduction with only hydrogen as the reducing gas. At the time, hydrogen as the sole reductant was chosen primarily to avoid sticking, a major challenge in iron reduction applications using fines. Recently there has been increasing interest in decarbonizing large parts of the iron and steel industry with many initiatives on their way around the world. In this paper Outotec's experience in the field of iron ore fines reduction as well as in the field of fluidized bed fundamentals is explored. In addition, the history of hydrogen-based reduction and major successes and challenges of the Trinidad Circored plant will be shown. Lastly, the fundamentals and findings of the intensive research and development work over the past 30 years will be discussed. Outotec has over time constantly invested in its tools, processes and research infrastructure and has tested many different raw materials for their suitability in the process.
Speaker Country Germany

Primary author

Mr Tobias Stefan (Outotec GmbH & Co KG)


Dr Jean-Paul Nepper (Outotec GmbH & Co. KG) Dr Sebastian Lang (Outotec GmbH&Co. KG)

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